Radiocarbon dating of the plant material is important for chronology of archaeological sites. Therefore, a selection of suitable plant samples is an important task. The contribution emphasizes the necessity of taxonomical identification prior to radiocarbon dating as a crucial element of such selection. The benefits and weaknesses of dating of taxonomically undetermined and identified samples will be analysed based on several case studies referring to Neolithic sites from Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. These examples better illustrate the significance of the taxonomical identification since plant materials of the Neolithic age include only a limited number of cultivated species e. Carpinus betulus and Fagus sylvatica. For more accurate dating results cereal grains, fruits and seeds, which reflect a single vegetative season, are preferred. Among charred wood, fragments of twigs, branches and external rings should mainly be taken into account, while those of trunks belonging to long-lived trees should be avoided.
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We recently obtained funding to extend work that we have been undertaking in Oxford over the last 5 years into the Palaeolithic chronology of Britain. We have been using ultrafiltration methods to date and, in some cases, redate, samples of bone from a number of sites dating to the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. The results have modified our understanding of the presence of humans and their disappearance from the British Isles during periods of climatic deterioration.
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This site is using cookies to collect anonymous visitor statistics and enhance the user experience. Grant held at : University of Sheffield , Archaeology. Science Classification details. Abstract: The switch from hunting and plant collecting to agriculture is one of the most significant economic and social changes in human history. Agriculture was introduced to Europe from west Asia 10, years ago and, during the next years, spread through Europe by two principal routes, one following the Danube and Rhine valleys through central Europe and into northern Europe including Britain , and the second taking a coastal route through Italy and Spain to northwest Europe.
The extent to which agriculture spread because of human migration, or through the transmission of ideas between existing hunter-gatherer groups, is a debate which can potentially be resolved by comparing the rate of spread in different geographic areas with variation in environmental and cultural factors. A widely held view of agricultural dispersal is that it spread rapidly into Greece and the Balkans, but slowed when it reached central Hungary before again moving rapidly through central Europe.
Further delays in the adoption of agriculture have been suggested for the north European plain and Alpine foreland. On the other hand, the spread along the Mediterranean coast was apparently rapid throughout.
Dating Central Europe
The activity of radiocesium in alluvial sediment is a widely used proxy for sediment age determination for the period after its first occurrence in the environment in In a continuous and undisturbed sediment archive, the results of this method are reliable as shown by various studies. However, depending on the specific characteristics of an archive provided by alluvial sediment, the results might be unreliable or biased.
Here, the radiocarbon dating of a large set of earthworm calcite laminated to homogeneous loess in Western and Central Europe (26, 27, 30).
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The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. They argued for a religious and political redistribution of power into the hands of Bible- and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes.
The key ideas of the Reformation—a call to purify the church and a belief that the Bible, not tradition, should be the sole source of spiritual authority—were not themselves novel. However, Luther and the other reformers became the first to skillfully use the power of the printing press to give their ideas a wide audience. Although he had hoped to spur renewal from within the church, in he was summoned before the Diet of Worms and excommunicated.
Poland , country of central Europe. Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries, buffeted by the forces of regional history. Yet two and a half centuries later, during the Partitions of Poland — , it disappeared, parceled out among the contending empires of Russia , Prussia , and Austria.
Even at a time of national crisis, however, Polish culture remained strong; indeed, it even flourished, if sometimes far from home. The Polish constitution of , the oldest in Europe, in turn incorporated ideals of the American and French revolutions. Poles later settled in great numbers in the United States , Canada , Argentina , and Australia and carried their culture with them. Restored as a nation in but ravaged by two world wars, Poland suffered tremendously throughout the course of the 20th century.
Millions of non-Jewish Poles also died, victims of more partition and conquest. With the fall of the Third Reich , Poland effectively lost its independence once again, becoming a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union. By the turn of the 21st century, Poland was a market-based democracy, abundant in products of all kinds and a member of both NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union EU , allied more strongly with western Europe than with eastern Europe but, as always, squarely between them.
A land of striking beauty, Poland is punctuated by great forests and rivers, broad plains, and tall mountains. Article Media. Info Print Print.
MD dating: molecular decay (MD) in pinewood as a dating method
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On the challenges of dating alluvial sediments with radiocesium: a caveat from the Wurm River, Central Europe. Michael Buchty-Lemke ORCID.
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Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. Central Europe occupies continuous territories that are otherwise sometimes considered parts of Western Europe , Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. The Thirty Years’ War between Catholicism and Protestantism was a significant shaping process in the history of Central Europe, and neither side was able to prevail in the region as a whole.
Historically, Central Europe comprised of the most territories of the Holy Roman Empire and the territories belonging to the two adjacent kingdoms to the east Poland and Hungary.
The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Since the s, archaeologists have divided the Early Bronze Age into two chronological phases Bronze A1 and A2 , which were also seen as stages of technical progress. On the basis of newly radiocarbon dated human remains from Final Neolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Age cemeteries south of Augsburg Bavaria and a re-dating of ten graves from the cemetery of Singen, we propose a significantly different dating range, which forces us to re-think the traditional relative and absolute chronologies as well as the narrative of technical development.
Moreover, there is no transition between Bronze Bz A1 and Bronze Bz A2, but a complete overlap between the type objects of the two phases from BC. We thus present a revised chronology of the assumed diagnostic type objects of the Early Bronze Age and recommend a radiocarbon-based view on the development of the material culture. Finally, we propose that the traditional phases Bz A1 and Bz A2 do not represent a chronological sequence, but regionally different social phenomena connected to the willingness of local actors to appropriate the new bronze technology.
Abstract The transition from the Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in Central Europe has often been considered as a supra-regional uniform process, which led to the growing mastery of the new bronze technology. Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Grant support. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.